Hello aspirants in this blogpost I am going to discuss about Agriculture Mains Syllabus for UPSC-CSE/IFoS for both paper 1 and paper 2.
Agriculture Mains Syllabus- Paper I
UNIT-1 ECOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE
- Ecology and its relevance to man.
- Natural resources, their sustainable management and conservation.
- Physical and social environment as factors of crop distribution and production.
- Agroecology; cropping pattern as indicators of environments.
- Environmental pollution and associated hazards to crops, animals, and humans.
- Climate change – International conventions and global initiatives.
- Greenhouse effect and global warming.
- Advance tools for ecosystem analysis – Remote sensing (RS) and Geographic Information Systems (GIS).
- Cropping patterns in different agro-climatic zones of the country.
- Impact of high yielding and short-duration varieties on shifts in cropping patterns.
- Concepts of various cropping and farming systems.
- Organic and Precision farming.
- Package of practices for production of important cereals, pulses, oil seeds, fibres, sugar, commercial and fodder crops.
- Important features and scope.
- Various types of forestry plantations such as social forestry, agroforestry, and natural forests.
- Propagation of forest plants.
- Forest products. Agroforestry and value addition.
- Conservation of forest flora and fauna.
UNIT-4 WEED SCIENCE
- Weeds their characteristics.
- Dissemination and association with various crops; their multiplications.
- Cultural, biological, and chemical control of weeds.
UNIT-5 SOIL AND NUTRIENT MANAGEMENT
- Soil- physical, chemical and biological properties.
- Processes and factors of soil formation.
- Soils of India.
- Mineral and organic constituents of soils and their role in maintaining soil productivity.
- Essential plant nutrients and other beneficial elements in soils and plants.
- Principles of soil fertility, soil testing and fertilizer recommendations.
- Integrated nutrient management.
- Bio fertilizers.
- Losses of nitrogen in soil, nitrogen-use efficiency in submerged rice soils, nitrogen fixation in soils.
- Efficient phosphorus and potassium use.
- Problem soils and their reclamation.
- Soil factors affecting greenhouse gas emission.
UNIT-6 SOIL WATER CONSERVATION
- Soil conservation.
- Integrated watershed management.
- Soil erosion and its management.
- Dry land agriculture and its problems.
- Technology for stabilizing agriculture production in rain fed areas.
- Water-use efficiency in relation to crop production.
- Criteria for scheduling irrigations.
- Ways and means of reducing runoff losses of irrigation water.
- Rainwater harvesting.
- Drip and sprinkler irrigation.
- Drainage of waterlogged soils.
- Quality of irrigation water.
- Effect of industrial effluents on soil and water pollution.
- Irrigation projects in India.
UNIT-7 AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS
- Farm management, scope, importance and characteristics, farm planning.
- Optimum resource use and budgeting.
- Economics of different types of farming systems.
- Marketing management – strategies for development, market intelligence.
- Price fluctuations and their cost
- Role of co-operatives in the agricultural economy.
- Types and systems of farming and factors affecting them.
- Agricultural price policy.
- Crop Insurance
UNIT-8 AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION
- Agricultural extension, its importance and its role.
- Methods of evaluation of extension programmes.
- Socio-economic survey and status of big, small and marginal farmers and landless agricultural labourers.
- Training programmes for extension workers.
- Role of Krishi Vigyan Kendra’s (KVK) in the dissemination of Agricultural technologies.
- Non-Government Organizations (NGO) and self-help group approach rural development.
Agriculture Mains Syllabus- Paper II
UNIT-9: CELL BIOLOGY AND GENETICS
- Cell structure, function, and cell cycle.
- Synthesis, structure and function of genetic material.
- Laws of heredity.
- Chromosome structure, chromosomal aberrations.
- Linkage and cross-over, and their significance in recombination breeding.
- Polyploidy, euploids and aneuploids.
- Mutations – and their role in crop improvement.
- Heritability, sterility and incompatibility, classification and their application in crop improvement.
- Cytoplasmic inheritance, sex-linked, sex-influenced, and sex-limited characters.
UNIT-10 PLANT BREEDING
- History of plant breeding.
- Modes of reproduction, selfing and crossing techniques.
- Origin, evolution and domestication of crop plants, Centre of origin, law of homologous series, crop genetic resources conservation and utilization.
- Application of principles of plant breeding, improvement of crop plants.
- Molecular markers and their application in plant improvement.
- Pure-line selection, pedigree, mass and recurrent selections.
- Combining ability, its significance in plant breeding.
- Heterosis and its exploitation.
- Somatic hybridization.
- Breeding for disease and pest resistance.
- Role of interspecific and intergeneric hybridization.
- Role of genetic engineering and biotechnology in crop improvement.
- Genetically modified crop plants.
UNIT-11 SEED PRODUCTION AND TECHNOLOGY
- Seed production and processing technologies.
- Seed certification, seed testing and storage.
- DNA finger printing and seed registration.
- Role of public and private sectors in seed production and marketing.
- Intellectual Property Rights (IPR) issues, WTO issues and its impact on Agriculture.
UNIT-12: PLANT PHYSIOLOGY
- Principles of plant physiology with reference to plant nutrition, absorption, translocation and metabolism of nutrients
- Soil-water-plant relationship
- Enzymes and plant pigments
- Photosynthesis- modern concepts and factors affecting
- C3, C4 and CAM mechanisms
- Aerobic and anaerobic respiration; Factors affecting aerobic and anaerobic respiration.
- Carbohydrate, Protein and fat metabolism
- Growth and development; photoperiodism and vernalization.
- Plant growth substances and their role in crop production.
- Physiology of seed development and germination; dormancy.
- Stress physiology – drought, salt and water stress.
UNIT-13 HORTICULTURE AND LANDSCAPING
- Major fruits, plantation crops, vegetables, spices and flower crops.
- Package practices of major horticultural crops.
- Protected cultivation and high-tech horticulture.
- Post-harvest technology and value addition of fruits and vegetables.
- Landscaping and commercial floriculture.
- Medicinal and aromatic plants.
- Role of fruits and vegetables in human nutrition.
UNIT-14 PLANT PROTECTION
- Diagnosis of pests and diseases of field crops, vegetables, orchard and plantation crops and their economic importance.
- Classification of pests and diseases and their management.
- Integrated pest and disease management.
- Storage pests and their management.
- Biological control of pests and diseases.
- Epidemiology and forecasting of major crop pests and diseases.
- Plant quarantine measures.
- Pesticides, their formulation, and modes of action.
UNIT-15 FOOD PRODUCTION AND NUTRITION
- Food production and consumption trends in India.
- Food security and growing population – vision 2020, Reasons for grain surplus.
- National and international food policies, Policy implementation in context to globalization.
- Production, procurement, and distribution constraints.
- Availability of food grains, per capita expenditure on food.
- Public Distribution System and Below Poverty Line population.
- Processing constraints.
- Relation of food production to National Dietary Guidelines and food consumption pattern.
- Food-based dietary approaches to eliminate hunger, Nutrient deficiency Micronutrient deficiency, Protein Energy Malnutrition or Protein Calorie Malnutrition (PEM or PCM).
- Micronutrient deficiency and HRD in the context of work capacity of women and children.
Source: | UPSC |
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