Essential Mineral Elements
Macronutrients: N, K, Ca, Mg, P, and S
Micronutrients: Cl, Fe, B, Mn, Zn, Cu, Mo, and Ni
Specific Roles of Essential Mineral Elements
- Proteins, nucleic acids, porphyries (chlorophylls & cytochromes) alkaloids, some vitamins, coenzymes have an important constituent i.e. Nitrogen.
- Nitrogen also plays a very important role in the growth, metabolism, reproduction, and heredity process.
- Nucleic acids, phospholipids, coenzymes NADP, NADPH2 and ATP have an important constituent i.e. Phosphorus.
- Phospholipids along with proteins may be important constituents of cell membranes.
- Through nucleic acids along with ATP Phosphorus plays an important role in protein synthesis.
- It plays an important role in energy transfer through coenzymes NAD, NADP and ATP.
- It plays important role in energy transfer reactions of cell metabolism eg. Photosynthesis, respiration and fat metabolism etc.
- In the cell potassium is not a constituent of organic compound.
- It is essential for the process of respiration and photosynthesis
- In carbohydrate metabolism and protein-synthesis potassium acts as an activator of many enzymes involved in various metabolic processes.
- Regulates water balance also.
- It regulates stomatal movement in leaves.
- Calcium is essential in the formation of cell membranes.
- In cell-wall, Calcium is an important constituent.
- Calcium helps to stabilize the structure of the chromosome.
- Sometimes Calcium plays an activator of many enzymes.
- Magnesium acts as activation of many enzymes carbohydrate metabolism.
- Magnesium plays an important role in binding ribosomal particles during protein synthesis.
- Magnesium is a very important constituent of chlorophylls.
- Sometimes Magnesium plays an activator of many enzymes in nucleic acid synthesis.
• Some amino acids like- cystine, cysteine and methionine, Sulphur plays an important constituent with which other amino acids form the protein.
• Sulphur also helps to stabilize the protein structure
• It is also an important constituent of vitamin i.e biotin, thiamine and coenzyme A.
• In proteins like cytochromes, peroxidase, catalases, etc. iron plays an important constituent as a iron porphyrin.
• It is essential for chlorophyll synthesis.
• It is a very important constituent of ferredoxin which plays an important role in photochemical reaction in photosynthesis and in biological nitrogen fixation.