Biodiversity of India
• India is recognized as rich in biodiversity and associated traditional knowledge.
• The geographical area under forest and tree cover – India has 23.39% of its.
Land area – With just 2.4%.
Recorded species – Nearly 7%.
Human population – Almost 18%.
India ranks 7th in mammals
9th in birds
5th in reptiles
India Represents richness:
- Realms – 2
- Biomes – 5
- Bio-geographic Zones – 10
- Bio-geographic provinces – 25
Biogeographic realms are large spatial regions within which ecosystems share a broadly similar biota.
• A realm is a continent or sub-continent sized area with unifying features of geography and fauna & flora.
• The Indian region is composed of two realms.
1) the Himalayan region represented by Palearctic Realm and
2) the rest of the sub-continent represented by Malayan Realm
In the world, Eight terrestrial biogeographic realms are typically recognized. They are
1) Nearctic Realm
2) Palaearctic Realm
3) Africotropical Realm
4) Indomalayan Realm
5) Ocenaia Realm
6) Australian Realm
7) Antarctic Realm
8) Neotropical Realm
Biomes of India
- The term biome means the main groups of plants and animals living in areas of certain climate patterns.
- It includes the way in which animals, vegetation, and soil interact together. The plants and animals of that area have adapted to that environment.
The five biomes of India are:
1) Tropical Humid Forests
2) Tropical Dry or Deciduous Forests (including Monsoon Forests)
3) Warm deserts and semi-deserts
4) Coniferous forests
5) Alpine meadows.
- Biogeography deals with the geographical distribution of plants and animals.
- Biogeographic zones were used as a basis for planning wildlife protected areas in India.
- There are 10 biogeographic zones which are distinguished clearly in India. They are as follows:
5) Western Ghats
6) Deccan Peninsula
7) Gangetic plain
8) North-east India
- Bio-geographic Province is a biotic subdivision of realms.
- India is divided into 25 bio-geographic zones.
|Biogeographic Zones||Biogeographic Provinces|
|1) Trans Himalaya||1) 1A: Himalaya – Ladakh Mountains|
2) 1B: Himalaya – Tibetan Plateau
3) 1C: Trans – Himalaya Sikkim
|2) The Himalaya|| 4) 2A: Himalaya – North West Himalaya|
5) 2B: Himalaya – West Himalaya
6) 2C: Himalaya – Central Himalaya
7) 2D: Himalaya – East Himalaya
|3) The Indian Desert|| 8) 3A: Desert – Thar|
9) 3B: Desert – Kutch
|4) The Semi-Arid||10) 4A: Semi-Arid – Punjab Plains|
11) 4B: Semi-Arid – Gujarat Rajputana
|5) The Western Ghats||12) 5A: Western Ghats – Malabar Plains|
13) 5B: Western Ghats – Western Ghats Mountains
|6) The Deccan Peninsula||14)6A: Deccan Peninsular – Central Highlands|
15)6B: Deccan Peninsular – Chotta Nagpur
16) 6C: Deccan Peninsular – Eastern Highlands
17) 6D: Deccan Peninsular – Central Plateau
18) 6E: Deccan Peninsular – Deccan South
|7) The Gangetic Plains||19) 7A: Gangetic Plain – Upper Gangetic Plains|
20) 7B: Gangetic Plain – Lower Gangetic Plains
|8) The Coasts||21) 8A: Coasts – West Coast|
22) 8B: Coasts – East Coast
23) 8C: Coasts – Lakshadweep
|9) Northeast India||24) 9A: North-East – Brahmaputra Valley|
25) 9B: North-East – North East Hills
|10) Islands||26) 10A: Islands – Andaman|
27) 10B: Islands – Nicobars